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  • CHRISTIAN VON KOENIGSEGG: My name is Christian Von

  • Koenigsegg.

  • I'm 40 years old.

  • And for half of my life I've been on the quest to be a

  • leader in the hypercar industry, utilizing Swedish

  • design combined with visionary technical solutions.

  • Our latest car, the Agera R, is built in the old hangers of

  • a former Swedish fighter jet squadron.

  • Their symbol, a ghost, is now proudly painted on the back of

  • every Koenigsegg.

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

  • CHRISTIAN VON KOENIGSEGG: So now I'm going to show you

  • something which we are working on for the future, which I

  • personally find very, very interesting in many aspects.

  • So what this is, this is what we call an actuator.

  • It's a Free Valve actuator.

  • Most of you who are familiar with combustion engines and

  • especially car engines know that there are camshafts

  • involved to move the valves inside the cylinder head.

  • And these valves, they have been controlled by camshafts

  • for the last 150 years or something like that.

  • But it's very restrictive, really, especially if you have

  • multi-cylinders and you want to have a rev range to go

  • through with efficiency and power because, when you have a

  • camshaft, you basically look at all the cylinders in the

  • same line to do, pretty much, the same thing.

  • There are coming systems now which give some flexibility.

  • You can tweak the angle a little bit, compared to the

  • crank of the engine.

  • And you can slide them sideways, like Audi is doing

  • to shut off cylinders now.

  • So it's getting better and better, but it's still very,

  • very restrictive.

  • You can think of the camshaft like a broom, pretty much.

  • You hold it in your hands and you push all the valves

  • simultaneously with this broomstick.

  • What the Free Valve system does is that each valve

  • becomes individual.

  • So if you think of the valves like keys on the piano,

  • suddenly, instead of pushing all the keys at the same time

  • with a broomstick, you can actually play the keys with

  • your fingers, which is the Free Valve idea.

  • And then, of course, the engine can perform in a

  • completely different way than being forced into a preset

  • pattern of combustion.

  • So what we're going to show you here is this is like a

  • small cut out of a cylinder head.

  • Here we have one valve.

  • Normally, there are two intake valves and two exhaust valves.

  • And here is just a small rig to run one of

  • these Free Valve actuators.

  • So basically, here you have the valve.

  • Here you have the actuator.

  • It goes into it like this.

  • This is lubricated by engine oil and pressurized by

  • pressurized air, which acts like an air hammer

  • to move this out.

  • Then the engine oil makes sure it stays stable and can lock

  • it in different positions.

  • And then air spring or a metal spring pushes it back.

  • So we have individual control over each valve, which brings

  • great benefit to the combustion

  • cycles in the engine.

  • So it's actually a snowballing effect.

  • The engine becomes lighter, smaller, cheaper, cleaner.

  • It can change the look of the car in the end.

  • So it's a very, very interesting technology that

  • I'm sure, one way or the other, will conquer the

  • cylinder heads of the world.

  • So here we'll go into a little bit of details how it works.

  • Urban, who is partly responsible for this

  • development, will show you a little bit what it looks like.

  • URBAN CARLSON: It's a very simple control system.

  • We have one signal for each valve.

  • And when we tell it to open, it opens with a few

  • milliseconds delay.

  • And when we tell it to close, it closes with, again, a few

  • milliseconds delay.

  • This it can do at very high speeds, up to

  • 20,000 RPM, if necessary.

  • CHRISTIAN VON KOENIGSEGG: The same size of actuator is

  • actually good for a small motorcycle engine revving

  • 15,000 RPM and a truck engine revving 2,500 RPM.

  • Because the motorcycle valve is very light, so it takes the

  • same energy to drive it backwards and forwards at

  • 15,000 RPM as it takes to drive a huge, heavy truck

  • valve backwards and forwards at 2,500 RPM.

  • So it's very neat that the same actuator basically covers

  • the need for all different engine sizes.

  • So now we're running at what kind of RPM here?

  • URBAN CARLSON: Well, here's a little bit over idle.

  • CHRISTIAN VON KOENIGSEGG: This is actually the

  • movement of the valve.

  • So you can see it goes quickly up.

  • And then it stays flat.

  • It's like having a square camshaft profile to make the

  • engine breathe really well.

  • If you would have a square camshaft profile, it would

  • break immediately, because it would jump off the edges and

  • would start hitting the valve stem.

  • And it wouldn't work.

  • But with the Free Valve system, you can actually open

  • any way you like and open really fast, stay open flat,

  • and then drop down.

  • Here it's possible to see the valve sequence as well.

  • That is a smooth curve, so it doesn't hit the valve so you

  • create noise and wear.

  • URBAN CARLSON: This is 3,000 RPM.

  • And you can see still a square form of the valve curve.

  • This is 9,000 RPM.

  • CHRISTIAN VON KOENIGSEGG: So this might just look like an

  • old Saab to you all.

  • And in fact, it is, apart from one aspect.

  • That aspect is what you see that's red here.

  • And that's the cylinder head, which has been modified to

  • accommodate our Cargine Free Valve system.

  • So basically what we've done here is we've taken the

  • cylinder head apart, machined out all the mountings and so

  • on for the camshafts, and installed 16 Cargine Free

  • Valve actuators.

  • And then we have designed a special valve cover.

  • Or it's not really a valve cover.

  • It's more a lid containing pressurized air channels and

  • pressurized oil channels coming from

  • the engine oil side.

  • You can see the height of this black cover here.

  • That's the same height as the standard cylinder

  • head used to be.

  • So even when we retrofit it, when it's not optimized for

  • space, it's anyway lower than the standard cylinder head.

  • So the engine actually shrinks and becomes lighter.

  • If we would have made a cylinder head from scratch,

  • instead of retrofitting into an existing cylinder head, it

  • would also become much narrower and even lower.

  • And this whole section here, which is a cover for where the

  • chain drive and for the camshaft used to sit, would

  • disappear completely.

  • So the engine would also become a lot shorter.

  • Basically, when you go from a camshaft to Cargine Free

  • Valves, the size of a four-cylinder engine becomes

  • just a little bit bigger than the size of a

  • three-cylinder engine.

  • And then, of course, if you cut away one cylinder to

  • maintain the power and torque level you used to have in your

  • four-cylinder engine, then it becomes really much smaller.

  • So this car here has been running with Cargine Free

  • Valve system, winter and summer, for the

  • last 2 and 1/2 years.

  • We've accumulated almost 60,000 kilometers, without any

  • failure whatsoever to the Free Valve system.

  • It's just been upgraded with our latest generation,

  • actuator generation 5, on both the intake an exhaust side of

  • the engine.

  • And it's been tested at the testing institute, called AVL,

  • with up to 20% improvement in fuel efficiency so far.

  • And that's just the starting point, I would say.

  • This is more a test field to run for durability and for

  • cold starts, even in the winter, down to minus 20

  • degrees Celsius.

  • But it's really exciting.

  • And it's, I think, one of the few cars in the world that is

  • running with no camshaft whatsoever.

  • When it's fully optimized, we're expecting to have 30%

  • less fuel consumption, 30% more torque, and 30% more

  • power, and, in an average driving

  • cycle, 50% less emissions.

  • And that's without connecting it to the possibility, which

  • is very interesting, which is an air tank.

  • Given this valve technology, we can actually recoup energy

  • while engine braking, by using the engine as an air pump,

  • pumping up a tank with air, getting air pressure there,

  • and then driving off only on that air, using the engine as

  • a compressor or, let's say, an air engine.

  • That compressed air can also be used for boosting the

  • engine while using fuel to have a really big, quick

  • spooling turbo which consumes no energy.

  • So instead of storing energy in the battery and like a

  • battery, we're using an empty tank of air.

  • So that's the next step of this technology.

  • But already, without that, it's a huge benefit, compared

  • to normal camshafts.

  • This technology is not yet in Koenigsegg.

  • And it's something, of course, we might plan

  • to do for the future.

  • It will be another three, four years out, before it's in any

  • production car.

  • And hopefully, the Koenigsegg could be one of the first.

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

CHRISTIAN VON KOENIGSEGG: My name is Christian Von

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The Future of the Internal Combustion Engine - /Inside Koenigsegg

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    阿多賓 posted on 2014/01/31
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